Received: 21 September 2020 Accepted: 03 November 2020 Published: 01 December 2020
Sea anemones from phylum cnidaria are benthic organisms and live on sea substrates, so water pollution can affect them easily. The marine environments are the target of contaminations caused by a complex mixture of metals and chemical materials from various anthropogenic sources. The pollution could have mortal effects on sea anemones. Although the anemones respond to increased metal exposure by closing their tentacles and changing the activities of the enzymes, CAT (catalse), GR (glutathione reductase), and CA (carbonic anhydrase), altered enzyme activity and tentacle retraction of sea anemones, as well as decreased zooxanthellae cell density could be observed responses over exposure. Metal depuration and physiological recovery are dependent on both the metal and the exposure concentration. Copper exposure can cause tentacle retraction and increase mucus production in both symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones. Heavy metals especially copper can cause cellular damages in the level of nucleus and DNA. Some species of sea anemones accumulate heavy metals such as copper and are sensitive, as effects were detected at environmentally relevant copper concentrations. Likewise, they may be useful in biomonitoring copper polluted environments.